Research

Our scientifically proven Charcoal will decrease damaging bacteria and fungi in the mouth.

 

There are several research studies showing that dysbiosis or imbalance in oral microbiome plays an important part in dental health. Please click the link to see hundreds of such research publications.

 

Important Scientific facts you should about your dental health

 

  • Teeth are colonized by oral bacteria from saliva, which are populated by microbes in the tongue.

  • The incessantly moving salivary microbes, either to the teeth or continuously flow down the gut.

  • In the gut, the microbiome influences expression of various genes and as a result, oral hygiene plays a significant role in influencing our overall health.

  • In contrary to Robert Koch’s theory of one agent and one disease, dental caries is now understood to be caused by dysbiosis (imbalance or microbial shift) of species in the oral microbiome [2]. 

  • The oral microbiome consists of several thousands of species of viruses, mycoplasmas, bacteria, archaea, fungi and protozoa [3]. 

  • These organisms interact with each other and colonize on dental surfaces as a biofilm, within a few hours after oral cleaning [4]. 

  • If left undisturbed, a complex biofilm called “plaque” will build up and may eventually cause demineralization of teeth [5]. 

  • Immune response to the biofilm results in inflammation that leads to the breakdown of bones that support the tooth, and periodontitis [6]. 

  • Furthermore, bacteria from the dental biofilm may spread to other parts of the body and cause further inflammation and systemic diseases [7].

 

STREPTOCOCCUS SETS STAGE FOR BIOFILM FORMATION

 

· Enamel integrity is disrupted secondary to the formation of a dental biofilm [8].

  • Biofilm forms in five stages and involves a group of bacterial species in each level [9]. 

  • The oral microbiota shifts from gram-positive aerobes to gram-negative anaerobes, leading to periodontitis [10]. 

  • Socransky (1988) showed that a group of bacteria associated with each other, building successive microbial complexes and potentiating disease [11]. 

  • The first and predominant initial colonizers are Streptococci (yellow complex), followed by gram-positive rods, Actinomyces species (green, blue or purple) [12]. 

  • Fusobacterium species (orange) aid complex dental plaque biofilm maturation, by bridging other early and late colonizing bacteria (red) in the oral cavity [13]. 

 

References

 

 

  1.  Wilson M. In: Microbial inhabitants of humans. Wilson M, editor. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2005. The oral cavity and its indigenous microbiota; pp. 318–374.

  2. José E. Belizário and Mauro Napolitano Human microbiomes and their roles in dysbiosis, common diseases, and novel therapeutic approaches. Front Microbiol. 2015; 6: 1050.

  3. Ruijie Huang,  Mingyun Li,  and Richard L Gregory, Bacterial interactions in dental biofilm. Virulence. 2011 Sep-Oct; 2(5): 435–444.

  4. Rolla G, Waaler SM, Kjaerheim V. Concepts in Dental Plaque Formation. In: Busscher HJ, Evans LV, editors. Oral Biofilms and Plaque Control. London, UK: Taylor and Francis; 1999.

  5. Dongari-Bagtzoglou A, et al. Characterization of mucosal Candida albicans biofilms. PLoS One. 2009;4(11):e7967. 

  6. Charcoal Controls Caries. An Account of a Survey of the Incidence of Dental Caries in Southern India. Brit. Dent. J. Brit. Dent. J., Vol. 80 pp. 232-234. 1946. Cullingford, Powell. 

  7. PCR detection of Streptococcus mutants and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in dental plaque samples from Haitian adolescents. Clin Oral Investig. 2011 Aug;15(4):461-9. doi: 10.1007/s00784-010-0413-y. Epub 2010 May 6. Psoter WJ1, Ge Y, Russell SL, Chen Z, Katz RV, Jean-Charles G, Li Y

  8. Development of a Dual-Index Sequencing Strategy and Curation Pipeline for Analyzing Amplicon Sequence Data on the MiSeq Illumina Sequencing Platform. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Sep; 79(17): 5112–5120.James J. Kozich,a Sarah L. Westcott,a Nielson T. Baxter,a Sarah K. Highlander,b and Patrick D. Schloss

  9. http://www.bdbiosciences.com/us/applications/research/t-cell-immunology/th-2-cells/immunoassays/elisa/human/human-il-6-elisa-set/p/555220

  10. Rita Chandki, Priyank Banthia, and Ruchi Banthia. Biofilms: A microbial home. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2011 Apr-Jun; 15(2): 111–114.J Am Dent Assoc. Franklin García-Godoy and M. John Hicks. Maintaining the integrity of the enamel surface: The role of dental biofilm, saliva and preventive agents in enamel demineralization and remineralization 

  11. J Am Dent Assoc. Franklin García-Godoy and M. John Hicks. Maintaining the integrity of the enamel surface: The role of dental biofilm, saliva and preventive agents in enamel demineralization and remineralization

  12. Oral Science International Volume 12, Issue 2, May 2015, Pages 37–42. Interspecies communication in oral biofilm: An ocean of information. Amit Parashara, , , Shashi Parasharb, Abhishek Zingadea, Shikha Guptac, Sheetal Sanikopa

  13. “The links between oral and systemic health”, The Clinical Advisor, March 2009 Jeffrey Astroth. 

  14. Six Ways Oral Hygiene Affects The Rest Of Your Body”, The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 01 Aug. 2011. Schocker, Laura. 

  15. Determination of bacterial load by real-time PCR using a broad-range (universal) probe and primers set. Microbiology, 2002,148, 257–266 Mangala A. Nadkarni, F. Elizabeth Martin, Nicholas A. Jacques and Neil Hunter. 

  16. Use of quantitative PCR to evaluate methods of bacteria sampling in periodontal patients, Journal of Oral Science, Vol. 52, No. 4, 615-621, 2010, Hiroshi Masunaga, Wataru Tsutae, Hyun Oh,  Naoki Shinozuka, Noriyoshi Kishimoto, Yorimasa Ogata.

  17. The Human Oral Microbiome, JOURNAL  OF BACTERIOLOGY, Oct. 2010, Vol. 192, No. 19, p. 5002–5017  Floyd E. Dewhirst,Tuste Chen,Jacques Izard,Bruce J. Paster,Anne C. R. Tanner,Wen-Han Yu,Abirami Lakshmanan,and William G. Wade.

  18. Socransky SS, Haffajee AD. Dental biofilms: difficult therapeutic targets. Periodontol. 2000;2008(28):12–55. [PubMed]

  19. Ximénez-Fyvie LA, Haffajee AD, Socransky SS. Comparison of microbiota of supra- and subgingival plaque in subjects in health and periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2000;27:648–57. [PubMed]

  20. Tatakis DN, Kumar PS. Etiology and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases in periodontology: present status and future concepts. Dent Clin North Am. 2005;49:493–7.

 

 

Best oral cleaning method is GIFTS method.

 

Research 

 

We are continually improving our products through scientific research using PCR and Next Generation Sequencing technology (Metagenomics) to ensure quality products.

© 2018 by GIFTS Charcoal

 

  • Grey Instagram Icon